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Lesson no. 6

1 - Quiz

Are the underlined words in the following sentences adjectives or adverbs?  Identify each as either adjective or adverb.  Answers are in section 8.  Studying Part 5 will help with this exercise.

a) She is a kind and understanding person.
b) Paula is an interesting speaker and a hard worker.
c) Tanya is a really exciting member of our team.
d) Robert usually eats junk food on the weekend.
e) I witnessed a horrific traffic accident near my house.
f)  Kumiko will probably drive to Kyoto for her vacation.
g) My car is an eyesore.
h) She is an incredibly beautiful woman.

2 - New Words From The Vocab Club
Our Daily Vocab Club has learned seven new words this week. Here are the seven new words:

Knowledgeable = having knowledge or intelligence. (adjective)
Lesson = an instructive example or a division of a course of study. (noun)
Mechanic = a manual worker, one who repairs machines. (noun)
Nuance = a small distinction or variation. (noun)
Ornamental = to add beauty to something. (adjective)
Petal = a leaf of a flower. (noun)
Quote = to speak or write words that originated from another person. (verb)

 3 - Student Essay  

This essay was submitted by


Education has been always discussed all over the world, and learning by doing and learning at school has been considered as two different forms of education.

Learning by doing allow people to learn by correcting their own mistakes or by observing what they are doing . For instance, if a child is curious about Science and he can make an experiment by himself he can observe everything that is happening during that step by step, and it will gave him an opportunity to keep what he has learned in his mind easier. In addition when a child tries to assemble a puzzle math , for example, and he makes some mistakes trying to figure out what piece he should use, and which one maths, he is puting his mind to work and correcting his own mistakes until get the solution for the problem.

On the other hand learning at school is a good way to learn how to organize his mind in order to know the best way to resolve problems, and to follow rules, and to socialize. Teachers are good instructors and they must have in mind that they are supposed to help their students to learn methodically and logically.

I personally disagree that one kind of learning is better than other. In my opinion learning by doing is as important as learning at school. For me children need to learn at school because its good for them to have someone who can help them when they have doubts, and showing them the directions; and at the same time the school should give them chances to learn by doing always as possible by doing experiments, observations and working with real situation.

4 - Comments about the Essay
Again, there are some great ideas presented here.  It's wonderful to see so many opinions on this topic.  This essay provides us with another look at a point of view on learning and education.  This student clearly presents their ideas on the advantages of both learning styles.  I think the opinions are clearly presented and this essay very well done.  It's a pleasure to read and a perfect example of the end result of a student's hard work learning English.

Here are a few points to assist you with future writing.  In the first sentence, you should say "Education has always been..." - place midsentence adverbs between the helping and main verb.  There are exceptions to be learned but in this case it should be this way.  In the next paragraph you should write "Learning by doing allows people.." use the singular verb "allows" with "Learning".  One other point is to place adjectives before nouns - "math puzzles", etc.  This is a great essay!  Keep up the great work and good luck with your English study!

Good Work Andrei !

5 - Adjectives and Adverbs

The important points to remember:
In reviewing adjectives and adverbs it is important to always remember what each does.  An adjective describes or modifies a noun (or a pronoun).  An adverb describes or modifies a verb (or an adjective).  You must be careful to look at exactly what you are trying to say and what you want to express.

Use of adjectives:
We want to describe or modify a noun.

My brother is an exciting person. (Exciting describes brother)
My grandmother is very wise.      (Wise describes grandmother)

Use of adverbs:
We want to describe or modify a verb.

He plays the piano well.  (Well describes how he plays the piano)
My friend drives slowly and carefully.  (Slowly and Carefully describe drives)

Remember that adverbs usually answer the question How?.  

How does he play the piano?            How does my friend drive?

6 - Christmas Article

'Twas The Night Before Christmas: Reading Comprehension

This week's reading comprehension is based on "'Twas The Night Before Christmas" which is one of the most traditional Christmas readings in English speaking countries. Written in 1822 by Clement C. Moore, "'Twas The Night Before Christmas" tells the story of Santa's arrival on Christmas Eve at a typical American household. Imagine it is Christmas Eve and you are sitting around the fireplace drinking a nice cup of Egg Nog (a typical Christmas drink made with eggs, cinnamon, milk and other ingredients sometimes including a good bit of rum) anxiously awaiting Christmas Eve. Outside the snow is falling and all the family is together. Finally, someone in the family takes out "'Twas The Night Before Christmas"

Before reading you may want to review some of the more difficult vocabulary listed after the story.

'Twas The Night Before Christmas, when all through the house
Not a creature was stirring, not even a mouse;
The stockings were hung by the chimney with care,
In hopes that St. Nicholas soon would be there;
The children were nestled all snug in their beds,
While visions of sugar-plums danced in their heads;
And mamma in her 'kerchief, and I in my cap,
Had just settled down for a long winter's nap,
When out on the lawn there arose such a clatter,
I sprang from the bed to see what was the matter.
Away to the window I flew like a flash,
Tore open the shutters and threw up the sash.
The moon on the breast of the new-fallen snow
Gave the lustre of mid-day to objects below,
When, what to my wondering eyes should appear,
But a miniature sleigh, and eight tiny reindeer,
With a little old driver, so lively and quick,
I knew in a moment it must be St. Nick.
More rapid than eagles his coursers they came,
And he whistled, and shouted, and called them by name;
"Now, Dasher! now, Dancer! now, Prancer and Vixen!
On, Comet! on Cupid! on, Donder and Blitzen!
To the top of the porch! to the top of the wall!
Now dash away! dash away! dash away all!"
As dry leaves that before the wild hurricane fly,
When they meet with an obstacle, mount to the sky,
So up to the house-top the coursers they flew,
With the sleigh full of toys, and St. Nicholas too.
And then, in a twinkling, I heard on the roof
The prancing and pawing of each little hoof.
As I drew in my hand, and was turning around,
Down the chimney St. Nicholas came with a bound.
He was dressed all in fur, from his head to his foot,
And his clothes were all tarnished with ashes and soot;
A bundle of toys he had flung on his back,
And he looked like a peddler just opening his pack.
His eyes -- how they twinkled! his dimples how merry!
His cheeks were like roses, his nose like a cherry!
His droll little mouth was drawn up like a bow,
And the beard of his chin was as white as the snow;
The stump of a pipe he held tight in his teeth,
And the smoke it encircled his head like a wreath;
He had a broad face and a little round belly,
That shook, when he laughed like a bowlful of jelly.
He was chubby and plump, a right jolly old elf,
And I laughed when I saw him, in spite of myself;
A wink of his eye and a twist of his head,
Soon gave me to know I had nothing to dread;
He spoke not a word, but went straight to his work,
And filled all the stockings; then turned with a jerk,
And laying his finger aside of his nose,
And giving a nod, up the chimney he rose;
He sprang to his sleigh, to his team gave a whistle,
And away they all flew like the down of a thistle.
But I heard him exclaim, ere he drove out of sight,
"Happy Christmas to all, and to all a good-night."

The vocabulary is in the order it appears in "'Twas The Night Before Christmas"

'Twas = It was
stirring = movement
nestled = comfortably in place
'kerchief = handkerchief
clatter = noise
sash = window covering that is pulled down from inside the room
shutters = window covering that is opened from outside the window
lustre = glow, illumination
sleigh = Santa Claus' vehicle, also used in Alaska with dogs
St. Nick = Santa Claus
Coursers = Animals which draw a sleigh
Porch = terrace
dash away = move onwards quickly
twinkling = a second
bound = a jump
tarnished = dirty
soot = black waste material found inside a chimney
bundle = bag
peddler = someone who sells things on the street
dimples = indentations on the cheeks
merry = happy
droll = funny
encircled = circle around
belly = stomach
dread = to be afraid of
jerk = quick movement
down of a thistle = the light material on a certain type of weed that floats away in the air
ere = before

7 - Interesting Facts

1) Mosquitoes have teeth.
2) Even if you cut off a cockroach's head, it can live for several weeks.
3) Cats have over one hundred vocal sounds, while dogs only have about ten.
4) Penguins can jump as high as 6 feet in the air.
5) The world population of chickens is about equal to the number of  people.
6) Penguins can jump as high as 6 feet in the air.
7) The biggest bee is as big as a hummingbird.
8) Bees cry when they lack a queen bee.
9) Bees cannot perceive the color red.
10) When stung by a bee, remove the stinger and put a little HONEY on the wound.

8 - Quiz Answers
Here are the answers from section 1:

a) adjective
b) adjective
c) adverb
d) adverb
e) adjective
f)  adverb
g) adjective
h) adverb

Coordonator sectiune: Dan Radu | Anca Barcu + Asociatia Studentilor din Facultatea de Limbi Straine | Contact


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